Medicare Basics (5)
What it is?
What it covers?
Who is eligible?
What are the costs?
How to enroll?
Assignment - An agreement by your doctor, provider, or supplier to be paid directly by Medicare, to accept the payment amount Medicare approves for the service, and not to bill you for any more than the Medicare deductible and coinsurance.
Benefit period - The way that Original Medicare measures your use of hospital and skilled nursing facility (SNF) services. A benefit period begins the day you’re admitted as an inpatient in a hospital or SNF. The benefit period ends when you haven’t received any inpatient hospital care (or skilled care in a SNF) for 60 days in a row. If you go into a hospital or a SNF after one benefit period has ended, a new benefit period begins. You must pay the inpatient hospital deductible for each benefit period. There’s no limit to the number of benefit periods.
Coinsurance - An amount you may be required to pay as your share of the cost for services after you pay any deductibles. Coinsurance is usually a percentage (for example, 20%).
Co-payment - An amount you may be required to pay as your share of the cost for a medical service or supply, like a doctor’s visit, hospital outpatient visit, or prescription drug. A co-payment is usually a set amount, rather than a percentage. For example, you might pay $10 or $20 for a doctor’s visit or prescription drug.
Creditable prescription drug coverage - Prescription drug coverage (for example, from an employer or union) that’s expected to pay, on average, at least as much as Medicare’s standard prescription drug coverage. People who have this kind of coverage when they become eligible for Medicare can generally keep that coverage without paying a penalty, if they decide to enroll in Medicare prescription drug coverage later.
Critical access hospital - A small facility that provides outpatient services, as well as inpatient services on a limited basis, to people in rural areas.
Custodial care - Non-skilled personal care, like help with activities of daily living like bathing, dressing, eating, getting in or out of a bed or chair, moving around, and using the bathroom. It may also include the kind of health-related care that most people do themselves, like using eye drops. In most cases, Medicare doesn’t pay for custodial care.
Deductible - The amount you must pay for health care or prescriptions before Original Medicare, your prescription drug plan, or your other insurance begins to pay.
Demonstrations - Special projects, sometimes called “pilot programs” or “research studies,” that test improvements in Medicare coverage, payment, and quality of care. They usually operate only for a limited time, for a specific group of people, and in specific areas.
Extra Help - A Medicare program to help people with limited income and resources pay Medicare prescription drug program costs, like premiums, deductibles, and coinsurance.
Formulary - A list of prescription drugs covered by a prescription drug plan or another insurance plan offering prescription drug benefits. Also called a drug list.
Inpatient rehabilitation facility - A hospital, or part of a hospital, that provides an intensive rehabilitation program to inpatients.
Institution - For the purposes of this publication, an institution is a facility that provides short-term or long-term care, like a nursing home, skilled nursing facility (SNF), or rehabilitation hospital. Private residences, like an assisted living facility or group home, aren’t considered institutions for this purpose.
Lifetime reserve days - In Original Medicare, these are additional days that Medicare will pay for when you’re in a hospital for more than 90 days. You have a total of 60 reserve days that can be used during your lifetime. For each lifetime reserve day, Medicare pays all covered costs except for a daily coinsurance.
Long-term care - Services that include medical and non-medical care provided to people who are unable to perform basic activities of daily living, like dressing or bathing. Long-term supports and services can be provided at home, in the community, in assisted living, or in nursing homes. Individuals may need long-term supports and services at any age. Medicare and most health insurance plans don’t pay for long-term care.
Long-term care hospital - Acute care hospitals that provide treatment for patients who stay, on average, more than 25 days. Most patients are transferred from an intensive or critical care unit. Services provided include comprehensive rehabilitation, respiratory therapy, head trauma treatment, and pain management.
Medically necessary - Health care services or supplies needed to diagnose or treat an illness, injury, condition, disease, or its symptoms and that meet accepted standards of medicine.
Medicare-approved amount - In Original Medicare, this is the amount a doctor or supplier that accepts assignment can be paid. It may be less than the actual amount a doctor or supplier charges. Medicare pays part of this amount and you’re responsible for the difference.
Medicare health plan - Generally, a plan offered by a private company that contracts with Medicare to provide Part A and Part B benefits to people with Medicare who enroll in the plan. Medicare health plans include all Medicare Advantage Plans, Medicare Cost Plans, and Demonstration/Pilot Programs. Programs of All-inclusive Care for the Elderly (PACE) organizations are special types of Medicare health plans that can be offered by public or private entities and provide Part D and other benefits in addition to Part A and Part B benefits.
Medicare plan - Any way other than Original Medicare that you can get your Medicare health or prescription drug coverage. This term includes all Medicare health plans and Medicare Prescription Drug Plans.
Premium - The periodic payment to Medicare, an insurance company, or a health care plan for health or prescription drug coverage.
Preventive services - Health care to prevent illness or detect illness at an early stage, when treatment is likely to work best (for example, preventive services include Pap tests, flu shots, and screening mammograms).
Primary care doctor - The doctor you see first for most health problems. He or she makes sure you get the care you need to keep you healthy. He or she also may talk with other doctors and health care providers about your care and refer you to them. In many Medicare Advantage Plans, you must see your primary care doctor before you see any other health care provider.
Primary care practitioner - A doctor who has a primary specialty in family medicine, internal medicine, geriatric medicine, or pediatric medicine; or a nurse practitioner, clinical nurse specialist, or physician assistant.
Referral - A written order from your primary care doctor for you to see a specialist or get certain medical services. In many Health Maintenance Organizations (HMOs), you need to get a referral before you can get medical care from anyone except your primary care doctor. If you don’t get a referral first, the plan may not pay for the services.
Service area - A geographic area where a health insurance plan accepts members if it limits membership based on where people live. For plans that limit which doctors and hospitals you may use, it’s also generally the area where you can get routine (non-emergency) services. The plan may disenroll you if you move out of the plan’s service area.
Skilled nursing facility (SNF) care - Skilled nursing care and rehabilitation services provided on a continuous, daily basis, in a skilled nursing facility. Examples of SNF care include physical therapy or intravenous injections that can only be given by a registered nurse or doctor.
TTY - A TTY (teletypewriter) is a communication device used by people who are deaf, hard-of-hearing, or have a severe speech impairment. People who don’t have a TTY can communicate with a TTY user through a message relay center (MRC). An MRC has TTY operators available to send and interpret TTY messages.
Source: Medicare & You 2017
What health care benefits are available in retirement? Health care in retirement is available from many sources. Government programs (such as Medicaid and Medicare) offer numerous health care benefits. However, you may need to purchase supplemental health insurance or Medigap, as well.
What government programs offer health-care benefits?
In some cases, you may be able to get health-care coverage through a government program. The three primary government programs that offer health care benefits are Medicare, Medicaid, and the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA, formerly the Veterans Administration). Many states also offer additional programs.
The Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act of 2015 (MACRA) became law on April 16, 2015. In addition to extending funding for the Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP), this act modifies certain Medicare provisions. If you are currently covered by Medicare or will be in the near future, you may be interested in learning more about these changes, including the ones summarized below.
It's wise to purchase health insurance to supplement your Medicare coverage, because Medicare generally won't cover all of your medical expenses. Usually, you'll have to satisfy a deductible before Medicare pays anything, and you'll also pay a co-payment when you visit a physician or are admitted to the hospital.